A Wronged-Soul Society Hong Kong as a Chinese Heterotopia

LI Cho Kiu


The wronged souls (yuanhun) of contemporary China have stimulated various self-imaginations, collective actions and civil organisations in Hong Kong. Hong Kong people have distanced themselves from Mainland China because of the perception of Communist China on these wronged souls. In accordance with analytical tools from existing studies on spectralities, this research reflects upon historical cases in question and demonstrates intricate interplays between wronged souls and civil society. The notion of “wrongedsoul society” is developed to articulate how wronged souls mobilise living people to challenge the ruling power with their agency. This research also reflects how civil society as a Western practice integrates the Chinese ideas of life and death in Hong Kong, thereby forming a wronged-soul society that, by connecting the living and the dead, can be seen as a Chinese heterotopia.


Keywords: Civil Society, Wronged Soul, Spectralities, Hong Kong, China

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