Post-9/11 U.S. Immigration Laws and Implications for Muslims
U.S. immigration laws and policy changed in the aftermath of 9/11. This paper provides an overview of the most significant changes to U.S. immigration policy since 2001, focusing on the legislative and policy response toward immigrants. This study examines whether these policy changes and laws have affected or targeted any particular community in America—specifically, Muslim immigrants—by reviewing some significant policy documents and laws i.e., the U.S. Patriot Act, National Strategy for Homeland Security, National Security Entry-Exit Registration System. This paper is divided into three major sections while adopting the qualitative approach to reach the findings. The first section reviews the laws and policies introduced after 9/11 in America and analyzes how these regulations were affecting the minorities residing in the U.S. while considering the success of the new immigration system. The second section provides an overview of the U.S. judicial response toward securing and safeguarding the rights of immigrants who were directly affected by the new immigration laws. The third and final part of this study describes the latest immigration reforms, particularly under the post 9/11 administration.
Keywords: immigration, Islamophobia, Muslims, reforms.
BENKLER, Y., FARIS, R., & ROBERTS, H. (2018). Network propaganda: Manipulation, disinformation, and radicalization in American politics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
CAINKAR, L. (2004). Post 9/11 Domestic Policies Affecting U. S. Arabs and Muslims: A Brief Review. Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa and the Middle East, 24(1), 247–251. https://doi.org/10.1215/1089201X-24-1-247
HING, B. (2006). Misusing Immigration Policies in the Name of Homeland Security. CR: The New Centennial Review, 6(1), 195-224. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/41949511
MARTIN, P. (2002). Immigration: Shaping and Reshaping America. Washington, District of Columbia: Population Reference Bureau. Retrieved from http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.565.9&rep=rep1&type=pdf
MOORE, S., & HARIS, A. (1996). Still the Pro‐Immigration Party? Washington, District of Columbia: CATO Institute. Retrieved from https://www.cato.org/publications/commentary/still-proimmigration-party
NATIONAL COMMISSION ON TERRORIST ATTACKS UPON THE UNITED STATES. (2020). Retrieved from https://9-11commission.gov
OFFICE OF HOMELAND SECURITY. (2002). The National Strategy for Homeland Security. Retrieved from https://www.dhs.gov/sites/default/files/publications/nat-strat-hls-2002.pdf
RUDOLPH, C. (2007). National Security and Immigration in the United States after 9/11. San Diego, California: Centre for Comparative Immigration Studies, University of California. Retrieved from https://ccis.ucsd.edu/_files/wp157.pdf
THE AVIATION AND TRANSPORT SECURITY ACT. (2001). Retrieved from https://www.govinfo.gov/content/pkg/PLAW-107publ71/pdf/PLAW-107publ71.pdf
THE GUARDIAN. (2017). Donald Trump's executive order on immigration – the full text. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2017/jan/27/donald-trump-executive-order-immigration-full-text
THE USA PATRIOT ACT (2001). Retrieved from https://www.sec.gov/about/offices/ocie/aml/patriotact2001.pdf
TUMLIN, K. (2004). Suspect First: How Terrorism Policy Is Reshaping Immigration Policy. California Law Review, 92(4), 1173-1239. https://doi.org/10.2307/3481320
- There are currently no refbacks.