A “212” Spirit: A Religious Economic Struggle in ‎Indonesia

Saparuddin Siregar, M. Ridwan


This essay examines the relationship between the Islamic religious spirit and the economic struggle, through the phenomenon of the "212" spirit’s symbol, as a representation of a group Muslim community economic movement in Indonesia, whether it contributes to the growth of the economy of its group. As a case study research, data were collected through observation and in-depth interviews. The research sample was “212 Mart” outlets in Medan, Indonesia. The respondents of this study were the central administrators of the 212 Sharia cooperative, the community administrators in Medan, and the managers of “212 Mart” outlets. Data analysis was carried out on participants' perceptions about their assessment of the internalization of the “212” spirit indicators, namely “Amanah” (trust), “Izzah” (honor), and “Berjamaah” (Congregated). This study showed that the 212 spirit's symbol failed to become an effective vehicle for uniting the power of the group of the community for struggling with their economy. These study results are useful for developing concepts theory of religious spirit for community empowerment, especially to generate ideas for encouraging corporate governance. This study shows that the Islamic religious spirit fails to support the economic struggle without qualified human resources.


Keywords: religious spirit, corporate governance, Islamic economy.

Full Text:



ABDULLAH, A. (2017). Membaca Komunikasi Politik Gerakan Aksi Bela Islam 212: Antara Politik Identitas Dan Ijtihad Politik Alternatif. An-Nida: Jurnal Pemikiran Islam, 41(2), 202–212. http://dx.doi.org/10.24014/an-nida.v41i2.4654

AHMAD, N. (2018). Toward advancing debates on Islamic marketing: a renewed perspective. Journal of Islamic Marketing, 9(1), 152-166. https://doi.org/10.1108/JIMA-08-2016-0064

AL-NASHMI, M.M., & ALMAMARY, A.A. (2017). The relationship between Islamic marketing ethics and brand credibility: A case of the pharmaceutical industry in Yemen. Journal of Islamic Marketing, 8(2), 261-288. https://doi.org/10.1108/JIMA-03-2015-0024

ARGENTI, G. (2019). Islam Politik Di Indonesia: Transformasi Gerakan Sosial Aksi Bela Islam 212 Dari Gerakan Demonstrasi Ke Gerakan Kelembagaan Sosial, Politik Dan Ekonomi. Jurnal Politikom Indonesiana, 4(2), 1–23. https://doi.org/10.35706/jpi.v4i2.3228

CASSELL, C., & SYMON, G. (2004). Essential Guide to Qualitative Methods in Organizational Research. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage. https://doi.org/10.4135/9781446280119

DENZIN, N.K., & LINCOLN, Y.S. (2011). Handbook of Qualitative Research. 4th ed. Sage Publications.

DU, X., & ZENG, Q. (2019). Bringing religion back in: Religious entrepreneurs, entrepreneurial gender, and bank loans in Chinese family firms. Asian Review of Accounting, 27(4), 508-545. https://doi.org/10.1108/ARA-04-2018-0097

EMONT, J. (2017). Jakarta’s Christian governor sentenced to prison in blasphemy case. The Washington Post. Retrieved from https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/worldviews/wp/2017/05/09/jakartas-christian-governor-sentenced-to-prison-in-blasphemy-case/

FACHRUDDIN, A.A., & SYARANI, A.R. (2019). What makes the 212 movements still significant? – Opinion. The Jakarta Post. Retrieved from https://www.thejakartapost.com/academia/2019/12/06/what-makes-the-212-movement-still-significant.html

GRUBE, L.E., & STORR, F.H. (2015). The Role of Culture in Economic Action. In: New Thinking in Austrian Political Economy (Advances in Austrian Economics, Vol. 19). Bingley: Emerald Group Publishing Limited, pp. 21-46. https://doi.org/10.1108/S1529-213420150000019002

HADIZ, V.R. (2017). Indonesia’s year of democratic setbacks: towards a new phase of deepening illiberalism? Bulletin of Indonesian Economic Studies, 53(3), 261–278. https://doi.org/10.1080/00074918.2017.1410311

KARAOSMANOGLU, E., ISIKSAL, D.G., & ALTINIGNE, N. (2018). Corporate brand transgression and punishing the transgressor: moderation of religious orientation. Journal of Product & Brand Management, 27(2), 221-234. https://doi.org/10.1108/JPBM-01-2017-1388

KREUGER, L.W., & NEUMAN, W.L. (2006). Social Work Research Methods: Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches with Research Navigator. Pearson/Allyn and Bacon.

LEAVY, P. (2014). The Oxford Handbook of Qualitative Research. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

MILES, M.B., & HUBERMAN, A.M. (1994). Qualitative Data Analysis. 2nd ed. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications.

NASERI, A., & TAMAM, E. (2012). Impact of Islamic religious symbol in producing favorable attitude toward advertisement. The Public Administration and Social Policies Review, 1(8), 61-77.

ROHMATI, D. (2019). The Empowerment of Economic Community after the Action of 212. Proceedings of the Social and Humaniora Research Symposium, Bandung, 23 October 2018, pp. 384–388. https://doi.org/https://dx.doi.org/10.2991/sores-18.2019.89

ROST, K. (2017). Introduction to the Corporate Governance of Religion. Academy of Management Proceedings, 2017(1), 15658. https://doi.org/10.5465/ambpp.2017.15658abstract

SAMMOUR, A., CHEN, W., & BALMER, J.M.T. (2020). Corporate Heritage Brand Traits and Corporate heritage brand identity: the case study of John Lewis. Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, 23(3), 447-470. https://doi.org/10.1108/QMR-03-2018-0039

SCHEIN, E.H. (2010). Organizational Culture and Leadership. 4th ed. San Francisco, California: Jossey-Bass Publishers.

SHINER, C. (1998). Police Slay 6 Jakarta Protesters. The Washington Post. Retrieved from https://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/inatl/longterm/indonesia/stories/indo051398.htm

SURIYANKIETKAEW, S., & KANTAMARA, P. (2019). Business ethics and spirituality for corporate sustainability: a Buddhism perspective. Journal of Management, Spirituality, and Religion, 16(3), 264–289. https://doi.org/10.1080/14766086.2019.1574598

WILSON, J.A.J., & GRANT, J. (2013). Islamic marketing – a challenger to the classical marketing canon? Journal of Islamic Marketing, 4(1), 7–21. https://doi.org/10.1108/17590831311306327

WONG, I.K.A., & GAO, J.H. (2014). Exploring the direct and indirect effects of CSR on organizational commitment: The mediating role of the corporate culture. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 26(4), 500–525. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJCHM-05-2013-0225

YIN, R.K. (2017). Case Study Research and Application. 6th ed. Cosmos Corporation.

YOUSAF, S. (2014). Promotion mix management: a consumer-focused Islamic perspective. Journal of Marketing Communications, 22(2), 215-231. https://doi.org/10.1080/13527266.2014.888575


  • There are currently no refbacks.