Hong Kong Journal of Social Sciences

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The Hong Kong Journal of Social Sciences (HKJSS) (ISSN:1021-3619) is a double-blind peer-reviewed, open access research journal. HKJSS aims to publish interdisciplinary research with a primary focus on original research or reviews in various disciplines of humanities and social sciences.

Articles are welcome in the following categories: education and assessment, English language & literature, media & journalism, politics & governance, psychology, sociology, macroeconomics, international economics, econometrics, tourism, insurance, commerce, marketing, history, political science, philosophy, culturology, aesthetics, ethics, law, spirituality.


The Hong Kong journal of Social Sciences is indexed by Scopus, Web of Science, America: History and Life, CSA Sociological Abstracts, Historical Abstracts, Hong Kong Journal Online, International Bibliography of the Social Sciences, International Consortium for the Academic Publication, ProQuest,  Ulrich’s Periodical Directory, 中華民國期刊論文索引影像系統, 中文期刊篇目索引影像系統, 香港中文期刊論文索引, 港澳期刊網.


Journal audiences are learned readers, including researchers from universities and higher education institutions, policymakers, and administrators. 

Articles containing fundamental or applied scientific results in all areas of the social sciences are accepted for consideration.

The editorial board of the HKJSS includes 25 members and is chaired by Editor-in-Chief  Prof. Luo Jinyi.

Frequency of publication:  Four issues per year beginning in 2020

Access to all articles on the website is open beginning in 2020; neither registration nor payment is required.

Journal articles are licensed under the CC BY 4.0 Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

The HKJSS maintains electronic versions of all articles. Data safety is ensured by backing up digital data in accordance with internal regulations. Logical and physical data migration are provided, and cloud technologies are applied.

Article Processing Charges (APC) Information


Hong Kong Journal of Social Sciences publishes all its articles in full open access, meaning unlimited use and reuse of articles, in addition to giving credit to the authors. All of our articles are published under a Creative Commons (CC BY) license.
Authors pay the one-time publication fees of 450.00 euros, including:

• Language Editing Services of 80 euros (for articles of 5000 words or less),

• Layout Editing - 20 euros,

• Article Publication Charges (APCs) - 350 euros.


Article Processing Charge (APC) to cover the costs of peer review administration and management, professional production of articles in PDF and other formats, and dissemination of published papers in various venues, in addition to other publishing functions.  There are no charges for rejected articles, no submission charges, and no surcharges based on the figures or supplementary data. Some items (Editorials, Corrections, Addendums, Retractions, Comments, etc.) are published free of charge.

Discounts on APCs may be granted at the Publisher's discretion and should be discussed with the editorial office when submitting the article. The editorial decision making is decoupled from the authors' ability to pay the Processing Charges, however authors should consider in advance whether they have sufficient funds to cover the full APC.

HKJSS also offers discount vouchers to selected reviewers.

APCs are payable within 5 to 10 business days.

Invoices are emailed shortly after acceptance to the payment contact provided by the authors. Only official invoices issued by HKJSS (@hkjoss.com) are valid. We do not authorize any third party to collect the APCs. HKJSS (@hkjoss.com) is the sole service provider and cannot be held liable for actions by third parties.
For wire transfers, we ask the customer to pay the fees for both the sender and the recipient bank, so that HKJSS receives the full invoiced amount.


For further information, please contact:

We’re located, Rm 1326, Lift 13 - 15, Academic Building, Clear Water Bay, Sai Kung, New Territories, Hong Kong
Get in touch with us!
Email: mailbox@hkjoss.com
Phone: (852)-4248-8958

Paper Submission 



Submission open for No. 63 Spring/Summer 2024

The Hong Kong journal of Social Sciences is accepting submissions for No. 63 Spring/Summer 2024

Dear Authors,
Please submit your manuscripts through our Online Submission System http://hkjoss.com/index.php/journal/pages/view/papersubmission  or directly to the Chief -Editor's e-mail mailbox@hkjoss.com.  The journal publishes articles in English or Chinese.
Hong Kong journal of Social Sciences an international, open access journal with rapid peer-review, which publishes works from a wide range of fields, including anthropology, criminology, economics, education, geography, history, law, linguistics, political science, psychology, social policy, social work, sociology and so on. The journal seeks to appeal to an interdisciplinary audience and authorship which focuses upon real world research. With its efficient and qualified double-blind peer review process, Hong Kong journal of Social Sciences aims to present the newest relevant and emerging scholarship in the field to both academia and the broader public alike, thereby maintaining its place as a dynamic platform for engaging in social sciences research and academic debate.

Subject Areas:
•    Anthropology;
•    Aesthetics;
•    Culturology;
•    Criminology;
•    Commerce;
•    Education and assessment;
•    English language & literature;
•    Econometrics;
•    Ethics;
•    Geography;
•    History;
•    International economics;
•    Insurance;
•    Law;
•    Linguistics;
•    Marketing;
•    Macroeconomics;
•    Media & journalism;
•    Political science;
•    Philosophy;
•    Psychology;
•    Social policy;
•    Social work;
•    Sociology;
•    Spirituality;
•    Tourism;
•    Other related areas.

Articles should be prepared in strict accordance with the template found through the following link: http://hkjoss.com/docs/template.doc  and Author Guidelines, please check the link http://hkjoss.com/index.php/journal/about/submissions#authorGuidelines.  
Each article should have no more than six authors. A study based on up-to-date references of 2016-2021 is required.
All articles published in are published in full open access. In order to provide free access to readers, and to cover the costs of peer review, copyediting, typesetting, long-term archiving, and journal management, an article processing charge (APC) of EUR 350 applies to papers accepted after peer review.
Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English or Chinese. Authors may use our English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.
Articles published in the Hong Kong journal of Social Sciences will be Open-Access articles distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The copyright is retained by the author(s).
Scopus coverage years: from 2010 to 2014, from 2016 to Present.

The Hong Kong Journal of Social Sciences rank is Q4 (General Social Sciences).

Posted: 2024-02-20 More...
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Last Research Articles

This research aims to (1) analyze the influence of situational leadership on good governance and performance, (2) analyze the influence of commitment on good governance and performance, (3) analyze the influence of competence on good governance and performance, (4) analyze the influence of good governance on performance, and (5) analyze the influence of situational leadership, commitment, and competence on performance, mediated by good governance. The research method used was quantitative research. The research object is the South Sulawesi Regional Police personnel. The results of this research show that 1) situational leadership has a positive and significant effect on good governance and the performance of the national police personnel at the South Sulawesi Regional Police; 2) commitment has a positive and significant effect on good governance and the performance of the national police personnel at the South Sulawesi Regional Police; 3) competence has a positive and significant effect on good governance and performance; 4) good governance has a positive and significant effect on performance; 5) good governance can mediate the influence of situational leadership and competence on performance but cannot mediate commitment to performance. The findings of this research suggest that by implementing good governance, it can serve as a moral compass to enhance the ethical standards within the police force. This includes improving service ethics, institutional ethics, and community ethics. This will lead to the optimal execution of police duties and responsibilities. The novelty of this research is that previous researchers focused only on the influence of situational leadership, commitment, and competence on performance and did not touch on good governance as a mediator. Good governance has not been widely studied as a mediating variable; therefore, the researchers use good governance as a mediator.


Keywords: situational leadership, commitment, competence, good governance, performance.


DOI: https://doi.org/10.55463/hkjss.issn.1021-3619.62.75

Agus, Mansyur Ramly, Abdul Rahman Mus, Achmad Gani, Ilham

Foods with a low glycemic index (GI) help control blood glucose levels and are associated with a lower risk of adverse health effects. Sago flour is rich in polyphenols and resistant starch, which correlates with a low GI diet. The study developed Thai layer cakes and butter cakes by replacing high-GI flour with sago flour in proportions of 40% to 60%. This is experimental research. The main variable is replacing high-GI flour with sago flour. GI is measured by the in vitro method for rapidly available glucose (RAG). The proximate composition of Thai layer cakes had higher fat and ash content and significantly lower carbohydrate content than the standard cake (p ≤ 0.05). Butter cakes had lower protein content (p ≤ 0.05) and higher carbohydrate content (p ≤ 0.05), and sago flour lowered the GI value in cakes from high to low compared with the standard formula. The total polyphenol content and antioxidant activity were higher when replaced by 50% sago flour compared with the standard formula, but without significant difference (p > 0.05). Sensory evaluation was most acceptable when replaced with 50% sago flour. Sago flour has significant antioxidant activity, and its use in cake formulations may increase antioxidant activity, particularly in butter cakes. The results suggest that the ORAC method may not be suitable for detecting the antioxidant activity of Thai layer cakes. Using sago flour as an alternative ingredient may benefit individuals with diabetes or health-conscious individuals. Replacing 50% of cassava starch with sago flour in Thai layer cakes and 50% of wheat flour with sago flour in butter cakes reduced the GI from medium to low and high to medium. The levels of polyphenols and antioxidant activity remained unchanged after substitution.


Keywords: butter cakes, glycemic index, food, sago starch, Thai layer cakes.


DOI: https://doi.org/10.55463/hkjss.issn.1021-3619.62.74

Chukkrit Thongkham, Ratchanee Kongkachuichai, Rin Charoensiri, Sunee Sahaspot, Kansuda Wunjuntuk

This study analyzes the implementation of online learning that involves asynchronous and synchronous activity during the COVID-19 pandemic. While most studies on this online learning model concentrate on typical scenarios, this study examines the effectiveness of bichronous online learning in a particular context: the COVID-19 pandemic in developing countries. The research was conducted in two private elementary schools, namely Pundarika and Zion GKKA-UP Primary School, Makassar, using the context, input, process, and product (CIPP) evaluation model. The findings indicate that implementing bichronous online learning in elementary schools requires management, which includes the planning, organizing, and supervision of the implementation by the school head. It is also necessary to create a program that will improve instructors’ proficiency with digital tools and their capacity to create lesson plans and instructional strategies that are suitable for primary school pupils. Finally, enhancing collaboration among the education department, local governments, committees, parents, foundations, and other stakeholders within the school system is imperative.


Keywords: bichronous learning, asynchronous activity, synchronous activity, private elementary school, CIPP evaluation.


DOI: https://doi.org/10.55463/hkjss.issn.1021-3619.62.73

Muhammad Yunus, Anastasia Yohana Sundah, Asdar, Sundari Hamid, Agustinus Jarak Patandean

In the ever-changing environment of educational technology, the pursuit of more effective teaching methods continues to be of utmost importance. This study examines the relative effectiveness of adaptive learning systems (ALSs) compared with conventional classroom techniques in the context of second language acquisition (SLA). This study compares the efficiency of ALSs and conventional classroom methods in the context of SLA to determine which approach yields more favorable learning outcomes. This study assessed the attitudes and outcomes of students through a survey that compared conventional classroom settings with those incorporating ALSs. The questionnaire collected information about students’ perspectives on each learning approach without divulging specific details about the ALS technology or classroom methods. The findings reveal an unambiguous preference for ALSs among students compared with conventional methods, which is accompanied by heightened levels of motivation in ALS environments. This suggests that ALSs’ personalized learning and motivation strategies exert a significant influence on learners’ engagement and proficiency in acquiring a second language. This research carries particular significance for educators and curriculum developers because it underscores the potential of ALSs to revolutionize the process of acquiring a second language. By offering tailored instruction and fostering greater learner engagement, ALSs can significantly enhance the learning experience. The key contribution of this research is the direct comparison of ALSs with conventional methods in the area of second language instruction. In demonstrating ALSs’ unique ability to increase motivation and engagement through personalized learning, this study enhances our understanding of effective language teaching strategies.


Keywords: adaptive learning systems, artificial intelligence, second language acquisition, personalized learning, educational technology.


DOI: https://doi.org/10.55463/hkjss.issn.1021-3619.62.72

Syed Adil, Ramadevi Sakhamuri

This research uses a gravity model combined with panel data to analyze the factors influencing Vietnam’s agricultural exports to the European Union (EU) countries. Based on the estimated results, the authors propose several policy recommendations for the Vietnamese government and businesses in enhancing Vietnam’s agricultural export in particular and promoting export in general. The data included in the study are collected in a tabular form, so the article uses the fixed effects model (FEM), random effects model (REM), and ordinary least squares (OLS) to determine the impact of factors on international trade flows between Vietnam and the EU countries in agricultural export. The estimated results indicate that geographical distance, exchange rates, and economic disparity positively impact Vietnam’s agricultural export activities to the EU member countries. Conversely, trade openness hurts Vietnam’s agricultural exports. The research also considers the impact of the EU-Vietnam Free Trade Agreement (EVFTA) on Vietnam’s agricultural exports to the EU. However, the estimation results show that the EVFTA factor positively affects export activities but lacks statistical significance in the model. Based on the research results of this article, the agency managing Vietnam’s agricultural export activities will make more appropriate management policy adjustments. At the same time, the recommendations in the article are also very necessary for Vietnamese farmers in the context of international economic integration. By including the variable implementing the EVFTA into the research model as a dummy variable, the results of this study will provide new perspectives on agricultural export activities in general as well as exporting agricultural products to a specific EU market.


Keywords: gravity models, export of agricultural products, the EU market, Vietnam.


DOI: https://doi.org/10.55463/hkjss.issn.1021-3619.62.71

Thi Anh Tuyet Le, Vinh Long Hoang, Thi Anh Linh Pham
Hong Kong journal of Social Sciences
The Hong Kong journal of Social Sciences is a kind of forum for discussing issues and problems facing science and scholars, as well as an effective means of interaction between the members of the academic community. The Hong Kong Journal of Social Sciences is read by a large number of scholars, and the circulation of the journal is constantly growing.
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