Teachers’ Readiness to Implement Emergency Remote Teaching during Covid-19 Learning Disruption

Nur Hidayah Zabarani, Azlin Norhaini Mansor, Khairul Azhar Jamaludin, Abdul Aziz Ismail, Abang Adam Abang Deli, Abdul Fatah Zakaria


In response to global education disruption, teachers must adopt remote teaching methods that incorporate the information, communication, and technology (ICT). However, many teachers are inexperienced with technology, as remote learning is uncommon, particularly in primary and secondary schools. Thus, there is a pressing need to identify teachers' readiness to implement remote teaching during global crises. Specifically, this study aimed to determine their readiness in terms of attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, and ICT efficacy for implementing remote teaching during the learning disruption period. This study was a cross-sectional study conducted among 4,985 primary and secondary school teachers across five zones of Malaysia (North, South, East, and West in Western Malaysia). These participants were selected using random sampling techniques. The instrument, a survey questionnaire with a 5-Likert scale, had 26 items covering four dimensions of readiness: attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, and ICT efficacy. This instrument has been validated by three academics and demonstrated a high level of internal consistency (α = 0.81). The findings revealed that teachers' readiness was high across all four dimensions (M = 3.73, SD = 0.645). The highest was the attitude (M = 3.88, SD = 0.598), and the lowest was the subjective norm (M = 3.63, SD = 0.696). Based on these findings, this study offers recommendations for maintaining momentum when conducting remote teaching in the face of current and future learning disruptions caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. The findings are important for policymakers and school leaders to design appropriate interventions and support effective remote teaching implementation.


Keywords: COVID-19 pandemic, emergency remote teaching, learning disruption, teacher readiness.

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