Livelihood Diversification among Artisanal Sand Dredgers in Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria
The need for a sustainable livelihood is compelling many artisanal sand dredgers to engage in other economic activities to augment the income from sand dredging affected by the season. Moreover, the pressure of the demand for sand heightens environmental degradation. This study analyzed livelihood diversification among artisanal sand dredgers in Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria. Two-stage sampling was used to sample one hundred and twenty-three respondents using a structured questionnaire. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Simpson diversity index and the two-limit Tobit regression. The study revealed that 86.2% of artisanal sand dredgers engaged in other economic activities. The average monthly incomes earned from sand dredging and other economic activities were ₦50,229.27 and ₦31,023.76, respectively. Sand dredging contributed 65.7% of the total income of respondent; other economic activities contributed 34.3%. The study revealed an income diversification of 0.46. The age of the respondents and household size were factors that influenced the extent of livelihood diversification. The findings of our study affirm the need for sand dredgers to engage in other economic activities because sand dredging alone as a means of livelihood cannot sustain their well-being. As more sand dredgers engage in other activities, the pressure on the environment that causes degradation through sand dredging would be reduced. This study is rooted in Environmental Economics. The engagement of most sand dredgers in other economic activities indicates that a substantial number could be gradually drawn away from sand dredging to reduce pressure on the environment.
Keywords: livelihood diversification, sand dredging, economic activity, environmental degradation, the Simpson index.
ADEDEJI, O.H., ADEBAYO, H.O., & SOTAYO, E.I. (2014). Assessing environmental impacts of inland sand mining in parts of Ogun State, Nigeria. Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies & Management, 7(5), 478-487. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ejesm.v7i5.2
AGARWALLA, S., & SAHA, D. (2022). Livelihood diversification of forest dwellers – A necessity or choice? Journal of Asian and African Studies, 57(3), 543-558. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/00219096211024676
ANNA, C.R. (2002). “Rural household strategies in southern Mali”: Determinants and contribution of income diversification to income level and distribution. World Bank.
ARWA, G.A. (2015). Sustainable governance for artisanal sand mining - case of Kangonde location, Masinga district. Retrieved from http://erepository.uonbi.ac.ke/bitstream/handle/11295/60467/Arwa_Sustainable%20Governance%20For%20Artisanal%20Sand%20Mining%20%20Case%20Of%20Kangonde%20Location%2C%20Masinga%20District.pdf?sequence=3&isAllowed=y
ASFAW, A., SIMANE, B., HASSEN, A., & BANTIDER, A. (2017). Determinants of non-farm livelihood diversification: Evidence from rainfed dependent smallholder farmers in Northcentral Ethiopia (Woleka sub-basin). Development Studies Research, 4(1), 22–36. https://doi.org/10.1080/21665095.2017.1413411
AWOTIDE, B.A., AWOYEMI, T.T., DIAGNE, A., KINKINGNIHOUN, F., & OJEHOMONE, V. (2012). Effect of income diversification on poverty reduction and income inequality in rural Nigeria: evidence from rice farming households. OIDA International Journal of Sustainable Development, 5(10), 65-78. Retrieved from https://oidaijsd.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/04/05-10-06.pdf
BABATUNDE, R.O., & QAIM, M. (2009). Patterns of income diversification in rural Nigeria: Determinants and impacts. Quarterly Journal of International Agriculture, 48(4), 305-320. Retrieved from https://www.agrar.hu-berlin.de/de/institut/departments/daoe/publ/qjia/contents/2009/4-09/Babatunde
BERNARD, A.S., SAMUEL A.B., & EDWARD, E.O. (2014). Determinants of income diversification of farm households in the western region of Ghana. Quarterly Journal of International Agriculture, 53(1), 55-72. https://doi.org/10.22004/ag.econ.195729
BUSINESS DICTIONARY. (2019). Natural resources. Retrieved from http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/natural-resource.html
CREATIVE COMMONS. (2019). Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported (CC BY-NC-ND 3.0). Retrieved from https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/
DAUD, A.S., AWOTIDE, B.A., OMOTAYO, A.O., OMOTOSHO, A.T., & ADENIYI, A.B. (2018). Effect of income diversification on household’s income in rural Oyo State, Nigeria. Acta Oeconomica, 14(1), 155-167.
DRAGGAN, S. (2008). Encyclopedia of earth. Sand and gravel. Washington, District of Columbia.
ETUK, E.A., UDOE, P.O., & OKON, I.I. (2018). Determinants of livelihood diversification among farm households in Akamkpa Local Government area, Cross River State, Nigeria. Agrosearch, 18(2), 101–112. https://dx.doi.org/10.4314/agrosh.v18i2.8
FAIRTRADE FOUNDATION. (2011). Fair-trade and fair mined gold: Empowering responsible artisanal and small-scale miners. Retrieved from http://www.globalcommodities.amdigital.co.uk/Documents/Details/Fairtrade-and-Fairmined-Gold--Empowering-Responsible-Artisanal-and-Small-Scale-Miners--A-Fairtrade/Fairtrade_Gold
FAYEMI, K. (2015). State of the Solid Mineral Sector and the Way Forward. Retrieved from http://thenewsnigeria.com.ng/wp-content/uploads/2015/12/SOLID-MINERALS-PRESS-BRIEFING-FINAL1.pdf
FEDERAL MINISTRY OF WATER RESOURCES. (2014). The project for review and update of Nigeria national water resources master plan, Vol. 4, National Water Resources Master Plan 2013. Abuja: Federal Ministry of Water Resources.
GETAMAP. (2019). Ogun River. Retrieved from http://www.getamap.net/maps/nigeria/nigeria_(general)/_ogun_river/
GHOSE, M.K., & ROY, S. (2007). Contribution of small-scale mining to employment, development and sustainability – an Indian scenario. Environment, Development and Sustainability, 9(3), 283-303. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10668-006-9024-9
HOGARH, J.N., SOWUNMI, F.A., AGBOLA, P.O., ANTWI-AGYEI, P., NUKPEZAH, D., & ATEWAMBA, C.T. (2015). Biosand filter as a household water treatment technology in Ghana and its ecobusiness potential: An assessment using a lifecycle approach. Journal of Environmental Accounting and Management, 3(4), 343-353. Retrieved from https://www.lhscientificpublishing.com/journals/articles/DOI-10.5890-JEAM.2015.11.004.aspx
IGLESIAS-RIOS, R., & MAZZONI, R. (2014). Measuring diversity: looking for processes that generate diversity. Natureza & Conservação, 12(2), 156-161. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ncon.2014.04.001
IRAOYA, A.O., & ISINIKA, A.C. (2020). Rural livelihood diversification in Nigeria: Implications for labour supply and income generation. Journal of Management, Economics, and Industrial Organization, 4(3), 64-74. http://doi.org/10.31039/jomeino.2020.4.3.1
MADDALA, G.S. (2013). Limited-dependent and qualitative variables in econometrics. Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511810176
MAGURRAN, A.E. (2004). Measuring biological diversity. London: Blackwell Publishing. Retrieved from http://www.bio-nica.info/Biblioteca/Magurran2004MeasuringBiological.pdf
MARKOWITZ, H. (1952). Portfolio selection. The Journal of Finance, 7(1), 77-91. Retrieved from https://www.math.ust.hk/~maykwok/courses/ma362/07F/markowitz_JF.pdf
MCMILLEN, D.P., & MCDONALD, J.F. (1990). A two-limit Tobit model of suburban land-use zoning. Land Economics, 66(3), 272-282. https://doi.org/10.2307/3146729
NATIONAL BUREAU OF STATISTICS. (2012). Social statistics in Nigeria. Retrieved from https://www.nigerianstat.gov.ng/pages/download/168
NATIONAL BUREAU OF STATISTICS. (2016). Annual abstract of statistics. National Bureau of Statistics, The Federal Republic of Nigeria.
OBSTACULO, P.Z. (2014). Land resources. Indang: Faculty of the College of Economics, Management, and Development Studies, Cavite State University.
OLAWALE, O., & PAMELA, O. (2013). Gender dimensions of rural livelihoods in artisanal and small-scale mining in Itesiwaju Local Government Area of Oyo State, Nigeria. African Journal of Sustainable Development, 3(1), 2-17. Retrieved from https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ajsd/article/view/93505
OLUWATAYO, I.B. (2009). Poverty and income diversification among households in rural Nigeria: A Gender of Analysis of Livelihood Patterns. Proceedings of the 2nd Instituto de Estudos Sociaise Económicos (IESE) Conference on ‘Dynamics of Poverty and Patterns of Economic Accumulation in Mozambique’, 22-23 April 2009. Retrieved from https://www.iese.ac.mz/lib/publication/II_conf/CP41_2009_Oluwatayo.pdf
ORAMAH, I.T. (2006). The Effects of Population Growth in Nigeria. Journal of Applied Sciences, 6, 1332-1337. https://dx.doi.org/10.3923/jas.2006.1332.1337
OWUNKA, J. (2019). 35 notable natural resources in Nigeria and their locations. Retrieved from https://infoguidenigeria.com/natural-resources-in-nigeria/
OYIDODE, A. (2018). Many Nigerians are making plenty of money from sand dredging at the bank of River. Retrieved from https://www.legit.ng/1117021-many-nigerians-making-plenty-money-sand-dredging-bank-river-niger.html
SALLAWU, H., TANKO, L., COKER, A.A.A., & SADIQ, M.L. (2016). Livelihood and Income Diversification Strategies among Rural Farm Households in Niger State, Nigeria. Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, 11(4), 1-11. https://doi.org/10.9734/AJAEES/2016/26010
SHERF-UI-ALAM, M., AHMED, J.U., MANNAF, M., FATEMA, K., & MOZAHID, M. (2017). Farm and non-farm income diversification in selected areas of Sunamganj District of Bangladesh. Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics and Sociology, 2(2), 1-9. http://dx.doi.org/10.9734/AJAEES/2017/36873
SOWUNMI, F.A., BELLO, F.O., & OBI-EGBEDI, O. (2021). Environmental and welfare effects of livelihood diversification on charcoal producers in Oke-Ogun, Oyo State, Nigeria. Journal of Rural Economics and Development, 23(1), 48-68. http://dx.doi.org/10.22004/ag.econ.313625
SOWUNMI, F.A., HOGARH, J.N., OMIGIE, C.O., & IDIAYE, C.O. (2016). Economic Burden of Sand Dredging on Artisanal Fishing in Lagos State, Nigeria. Poultry, Fishery and Wildlife Science, 4(2), 171. http://dx.doi.org/10.4172/2375-446X.1000171
STEINBERGER, J.K., KRAUSMAN, F., & EISENMENGER, N. (2010). Global patterns of materials use: A socioeconomic and geophysical analysis. Ecological Economics, 69, 1148-1158. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolecon.2009.12.009
STEVENSON, G. (1991). Common property economics: A general theory and land use application. New York: Cambridge University Press.
TESHOME, B., & EDRISS, A. (2013). Determinants and patterns of income diversification among smallholder farmers in Akaki District, Ethiopia. Journal of Research in Economics and International Finance, 2(4), 68-78. https://doi.org/10.22004/AG.ECON.157598
THOMAS, H., FELIX, H., & MICHAEL, P. (2003). Artisanal and Small-Scale Mining, Challenges and Opportunities. Nottingham: Russell Press Ltd.
THOMAS, K.A., & OGUNNOWO, A.A. (2017). Perceived effects of sand dredging on livelihood diversification of artisanal fisher folks in Lagos State, Nigeria. Agrucultura Tropica Et Subtropica, 50(2), 71-79. http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/ats-2017-0008
UNITED NATIONS DEPARTMENT OF ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL AFFAIRS. (2003). Poverty eradication and sustainable livelihood: focusing on artisanal mining communities. Retrieved from http://esa.un.org/techcoop/flagship.asp?Code=RAF99023
UNITED NATIONS ENVIRONMENT PROGRAMME. (2014). Sand, Rarer than One Thinks: UNEP Global Environmental Alert Service (GEAS) - March 2014. Retrieved from https://wedocs.unep.org/20.500.11822/8665
VILLIOTH, J. (2014). Building an economy on quicksand. Retrieved from http://www.ejolt.org/2014/08/building-an-economy-on-quicksand/
- There are currently no refbacks.