Exploitation of Contract Workers in the Banking Industry: Study of Banks in Sokoto, Nigeria

Usman Ibrahim Dabai, Novel Lyndon


The study assessed the exploitation of casual workers in the Nigerian financial sector, with a specific reference to banks in the Sokoto megalopolis. The objective of the study was to examine the working condition of utmost casual staff in these banks. The study was explicatory and employed a qualitative exploration design; for the purposes of the study, a total of five banks were used as a sample, accounting for 70% of the banks in Sokoto metropolitan. Fifty respondents (casual/contract workers) were purposefully picked from the 171 casual staff members of the selected banks by random sampling to form a sample of the population. Using a key informant interview guide, five management staff members, one from each selected bank, were also interviewed. The study found that the salaries to casual staff in the bank is not commensurate to the work executed, Business Solution enterprises were the major agents in the exploitation of casual workers of banks in Nigeria and these BSFs are possessed by the top directors of the banks; denoting double exploitation, casual staff are being deprived of certain social benefits, allowances, and social security of jobs. The study recommends the perpetration of the transnational labor laws and making of laws to check the casualization of labor in fiscal institutions, that government should ensure strict compliance with the labor laws, and unionization was explosively recommended as a move toward negotiating the rights of casual staff, among others.


Keywords: casual, business solution firms, exploitation of workers, workers’ performance.


DOI: https://doi.org/10.55463/hkjss.issn.1021-3619.60.80

Full Text:



ANUGWON, E.E. (2007). Globalization and labour utilization in Nigeria: Evidence from the construction industry. Africa Development, XXXII(2), 113–138. https://doi.org/10.4314/ad.v32i2.57183

ARMSTRONG, M. (2009). Armstrong’s Handbook of Human Resource Management Practice. 11th ed. London: Kogan Page Limited.

BAMIDELE, R. (2011). Casualization and Labour Utilization in Nigeria. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/306280785_CASUALIZATION_AND_LABOUR_UTILIZATION_IN_NIGERIA

BHORAT, H., & HINKS, T.J. (2006). Changing Patterns of Employment and Employer-Employee Relations in Post-Apartheid South Africa. Cape Town: Development and Policy Research Unit (DPRU).

BODIBE, O. (2006). The Extent and Effects of Casualisation in Southern Africa: Analysis of Lesotho, Mozambique, South Africa, Swaziland, Zambia and Zimbabwe. Retrieved from https://sarpn.org/documents/d0002568/Effects_Casualisation_Nov2006.pdf

DANESI, R.A. (2002). Casualization Practices in Nigeria and International Labour Standards. LLM dissertation, University of Lagos.

ENUKORA, N. (2020). Casualization: A Qualitative Insight into the Experiences of Casual Workers. ESUT Journal of Social Sciences, 5(2), 105-121. Retrieved from https://www.esutjss.com/index.php/ESUTJSS/article/view/46

GALLAGHER, D., & SVERKE, M. (2005). Contingent Employment Contracts: Are Existing Employment Theories Still Relevant? Economic and Industrial Democracy, 26(2), 181-203. https://doi.org/10.1177/0143831X05051513

KALLEBERG, A.L. (2000). Changing Employment Relations in the United States. Proceedings of the Meetings of the Society for the Advancement of Socio-Economics, Madison, Wisconsin, 8-11 July 2000, p. 10.

LUWOYE, S. (2001). Casualization and Contract Employment in Nigerian Oil Industry. Proceedings of the Seminar of Stakeholders in the Oil and Gas Industry, Abuja, 5 November 2001, p. 3.

LYNDON, N., ER, A.C., SIVAPALAN, S., ALI, H., ROSNIZA, A.C.R., AZIMA, A.M., JUNAIDI, A.B., FUAD, M.J., HUSSEIN, M.Y., & HELMI, A.R.M. (2013). The World-View of Penan Community on Quality of Life. Asian Social Science, 9(14), 98-105. https://doi.org/10.5539/ass.v9n14p98

MALIK, B., LYNDON, N., & CHIN, Y.W. (2020). Health status and illness experiences of refugee scavengers in Pakistan. SAGE Open, 10(1), 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1177/2158244020914562

MUNN, C. (2004). Casualization of the Workforce: ANZ Economic update.

NOVEL, L., SIVAPALAN, S., ER, A.C., MOHD FUAD, M J., ZAIDAH, M., AISHAH, M., & BUANG, A. (2011). Intangible factors influencing gender differences in educational attainment using an abductive research strategy. World Applied Sciences Journal, 13, 46-52. Retrieved from http://www.idosi.org/wasj/wasj13(HDD)/9.pdf

O’DONNELL, A. (2004). Non-Standard Workers in Australia: Counts and Controversies. Australian Journal of Labour Law, 17, 1-28.

OKAFOR, E.E. (2007). Globalisation, casualisation and capitalist business ethics: a critical overview of situation in the oil and gas sector in Nigeria. Journal of Social Sciences, 15(2), 169-179. https://doi.org/10.1080/09718923.2007.11892579

OKENE, O.V. (2007). The Status of the Right to Strike in Nigeria: A Perspective from International and Comparative Law. African Journal of International and Comparative Law, 15(1), 29-60. https://doi.org/10.3366/ajicl.2007.15.1.29

OKOUGBO, E. (2004). Strategic Issues on the Dynamics of Industrial Relations: Theory and Practice. Lagos: Wepoapo Enterprise.

ORIFOWOMO, O.A. (2007). Legal perspectives on the casualisation of workers under Nigerian Labour Law. East African Journal of Peace and Human Rights, 13(1), 104-125. https://doi.org/10.4314/eajphr.v13i1.39344

OWOSEYE, A., & ONWE, C. (2009). Recession: Temporary employment, the toast for employers. Lagos.

SARMILA, M.S., ZAIMAH, R., LYNDON, N., HUSSAIN, M.Y., & AWANG, A.H. (2015). Local community economic wellbeing through CSR project. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, 6(4), 79. http://dx.doi.org/10.5901/mjss.2015.v6n4s3p79

STEBBINS, R.A. (2001). Exploratory research in the social sciences, Vol. 48. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage.

UVIEGHARA, E.E. (2001). Labour Law in Nigeria. Lagos: Malthouse Press Limited.

ZAIMAH, R., SARMILA, M.S., LYNDON, N., AZIMA, A.M., SELVADURAI, S., SAAD, S., & ER, A.C. (2013). Financial behaviors of female teachers in Malaysia. Asian Social Science, 9(8), 34-41. https://doi.org/10.5539/ass.v9n8p34


  • There are currently no refbacks.