The Level of Marzano Higher-Order Thinking Skills among Polytechnic Students

M. H. Yee, M. F. Mahmad, T. K. Tee, B. C. Kok, N. Azid


This study aims to identify polytechnic students' level of Marzano Higher-Order Thinking Skills (HOTS) based on two dimensions, 'Extension and Refinement of Knowledge' and 'Meaningful Use of Knowledge,' and to analyze the difference in the students' level of Marzano HOTS based on these two dimensions depending on the students' demographic factors. This study design was a survey using quantitative methods. A total of 313 students were randomly selected as the survey sample. A questionnaire in the form of closed-ended questions was used as the research instrument. Data were analyzed using frequency percentage and MANOVA test. The findings showed no significant differences in the eight HOTS in the dimension of 'Extension and Refinement of Knowledge' with the gender and socio-economic status (SES) factors. However, there were significant differences in the eight HOTS with the academic achievement factor. Meanwhile, based on the dimension of 'Meaningful Use of Knowledge,' the findings showed no significant differences in the five HOTS in this dimension with the gender and academic achievement factors. The paper includes implications of the Higher-Order Thinking Skills (HOTS) for students to improve their academic performance. In future research, the authors can further identify university students' HOTS levels in the technical area.


Keywords: polytechnic students, Marzano higher-order thinking skills, academic performance.

Full Text:



ABDUL HAMID, M.A. (2001). Introduction to Critical and Creative Thinking. 1st ed. Skudai: Universiti Teknologi Malaysia.

AHMAD, N., ABDULLAH, A., MOHD RAMELI, M.R., & ABU, M. (2018). Proceedings of the Education Research Colloquium between Faculty of Education, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM) & Universitas Negeri Makassar, Indonesia. Johor: Faculty of Education, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia.

CHUA, Y.P. (2006). Research Method. Kuala Lumpur: McGraw Hill.

IDRIS, N. (2013). Research in Education. 2nd ed. Selangor: McGraw-Hill Education.

JOHARI, K. (2003). Research in Education: Concepts and Procedures. Petaling Jaya: Prentice Hall.

KEMENTERIAN PENDIDIKAN MALAYSIA. (2015). Ringkasan Eksekutif Pelan Pembangunan Pendidikan Malaysia 2015-2025 (Pendidikan Tinggi). Retrieved from

KING, F., GOODSON, L., and ROHANI, F. (2011). Higher-order thinking skills: Definitions, strategies, assessment. Tallahassee, Florida: Center for Advancement of Learning and Assessment, Florida State University.

KREJCIE, R.V., & MORGAN, D.W. (1970). Determining Sample Size for Research Activities. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 30(3), 607–610.

LEWIS, A., & SMITH, D. (1993). Defining Higher Order Thinking. Theory into Practice, 32(3), 131–137.

MALAYSIAN EXAMINATION COUNCIL. (2013). Assessment of High-Level Thinking Skills. Kuala Lumpur: Malaysian Ministry of Education.

OSMAN, N. (2010). Marzano's Pattern of High-Level Thinking Skills Is Based on the Dimension of Expanding and Perfecting Knowledge. Master’s thesis, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia.

POLICY DEVELOPMENT DIVISION. (2013). Phase Two Polytechnic Transformation. Kuala Lumpur: Department of Polytechnic Education, Malaysian Ministry of Education. Retrieved from fasa2.pdf

RODZALAN, S., & SAAT, M. (2015). The Perception of Critical Thinking and Problem Solving Skill among Malaysian Undergraduate Students. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 172, 725-732.

SULAIMAN, T., MUNIYAN, V., MADHVAN, D., HASAN, R., & RAHIM, S.S.A. (2017). Implementation of higher order thinking skills in teaching of science: A case study in Malaysia. International Research Journal of Education and Sciences, 1(1), 2550-2158. Retrieved from

TAHIR, L., SAMAH, N.A., OMAR, W., MOHAMMAD, S., LATIF, A., YUSOF, S.M., AMIN, N.F., HAMID, M.Z., ARSAT, M., & JAMAL, A.H. (2018). Re-Examine Malaysian Heis Graduates’ Employability: Comparing Perspectives from Graduates and Employees. The Turkish Online Journal of Design, Art and Communication, September 2018 Special Edition, 1666-1685.

THE OFFICE OF PRIME MINISTER. (2013). Economic Transformation Programme: Annual Report. Retrieved from

YEE, M.H (2015). Kesan Manual Pengintegrasian Strategi Pemblejaran Dan Kemahiran Berfikir Terhadap Penjanaan Idea Dalam Kalangan Pelajar Teknikal. Ph.D. thesis, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia.

YEE, M.H., HAMDAN, N., TEE, T.K., & MOHAFFYZA, M. (2016). Analisis Keperluan Gaya Pembelajaran dan Kemahiran Berfikir Aras Tinggi dalam Pembelajaran Berasaskan Masalah. NCTVET 1st National Conference on TVET 2016, Faculty of Technical and Vocational Education.

YEE, M.H., MD. YUNOS, J., OTHMAN, W., HASSAN, R., TEE, T.K., & MOHAMAD, M.M. (2015). Disparity of Learning Styles and Higher Order Thinking Skills among Technical Students. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 204, 143–152.


  • There are currently no refbacks.