Hong Kong Journal of Social Sciences

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The Hong Kong Journal of Social Sciences (HKJSS) (ISSN:1021-3619) is a double-blind peer-reviewed, open access research journal. HKJSS aims to publish interdisciplinary research with a primary focus on original research or reviews in various disciplines of humanities and social sciences.

Articles are welcome in the following categories: education and assessment, English language & literature, media & journalism, politics & governance, psychology, sociology, macroeconomics, international economics, econometrics, tourism, insurance, commerce, marketing, history, political science, philosophy, culturology, aesthetics, ethics, law, spirituality.


The Hong Kong journal of Social Sciences is indexed by Scopus, Web of Science, America: History and Life, CSA Sociological Abstracts, Historical Abstracts, Hong Kong Journal Online, International Bibliography of the Social Sciences, International Consortium for the Academic Publication, ProQuest,  Ulrich’s Periodical Directory, 中華民國期刊論文索引影像系統, 中文期刊篇目索引影像系統, 香港中文期刊論文索引, 港澳期刊網.


Journal audiences are learned readers, including researchers from universities and higher education institutions, policymakers, and administrators. 

Articles containing fundamental or applied scientific results in all areas of the social sciences are accepted for consideration.

The editorial board of the HKJSS includes 25 members and is chaired by Editor-in-Chief  Prof. Luo Jinyi.

Frequency of publication:  Four issues per year beginning in 2020

Access to all articles on the website is open beginning in 2020; neither registration nor payment is required.

Journal articles are licensed under the CC BY 4.0 Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

The HKJSS maintains electronic versions of all articles. Data safety is ensured by backing up digital data in accordance with internal regulations. Logical and physical data migration are provided, and cloud technologies are applied.

Article Processing Charges (APC) Information


Hong Kong Journal of Social Sciences publishes all its articles in full open access, meaning unlimited use and reuse of articles, in addition to giving credit to the authors. All of our articles are published under a Creative Commons (CC BY) license.
Authors pay the one-time publication fees of 450.00 euros, including:

• Language Editing Services of 80 euros (for articles of 5000 words or less),

• Layout Editing - 20 euros,

• Article Publication Charges (APCs) - 350 euros.


Article Processing Charge (APC) to cover the costs of peer review administration and management, professional production of articles in PDF and other formats, and dissemination of published papers in various venues, in addition to other publishing functions.  There are no charges for rejected articles, no submission charges, and no surcharges based on the figures or supplementary data. Some items (Editorials, Corrections, Addendums, Retractions, Comments, etc.) are published free of charge.

Discounts on APCs may be granted at the Publisher's discretion and should be discussed with the editorial office when submitting the article. The editorial decision making is decoupled from the authors' ability to pay the Processing Charges, however authors should consider in advance whether they have sufficient funds to cover the full APC.

HKJSS also offers discount vouchers to selected reviewers.

APCs are payable within 5 to 10 business days.

Invoices are emailed shortly after acceptance to the payment contact provided by the authors. Only official invoices issued by HKJSS (@hkjoss.com) are valid. We do not authorize any third party to collect the APCs. HKJSS (@hkjoss.com) is the sole service provider and cannot be held liable for actions by third parties.
For wire transfers, we ask the customer to pay the fees for both the sender and the recipient bank, so that HKJSS receives the full invoiced amount.


For further information, please contact:

We’re located, Rm 1326, Lift 13 - 15, Academic Building, Clear Water Bay, Sai Kung, New Territories, Hong Kong
Get in touch with us!
Email: mailbox@hkjoss.com
Phone: (852)-4248-8958

Paper Submission 



Submission open for No. 62 Autumn/Winter 2023

The Hong Kong journal of Social Sciences is accepting submissions for No. 62 Autumn/Winter 2023

Dear Authors,
Please submit your manuscripts through our Online Submission System http://hkjoss.com/index.php/journal/pages/view/papersubmission  or directly to the Chief -Editor's e-mail mailbox@hkjoss.com.  The journal publishes articles in English or Chinese.
Hong Kong journal of Social Sciences an international, open access journal with rapid peer-review, which publishes works from a wide range of fields, including anthropology, criminology, economics, education, geography, history, law, linguistics, political science, psychology, social policy, social work, sociology and so on. The journal seeks to appeal to an interdisciplinary audience and authorship which focuses upon real world research. With its efficient and qualified double-blind peer review process, Hong Kong journal of Social Sciences aims to present the newest relevant and emerging scholarship in the field to both academia and the broader public alike, thereby maintaining its place as a dynamic platform for engaging in social sciences research and academic debate.

Subject Areas:
•    Anthropology;
•    Aesthetics;
•    Culturology;
•    Criminology;
•    Commerce;
•    Education and assessment;
•    English language & literature;
•    Econometrics;
•    Ethics;
•    Geography;
•    History;
•    International economics;
•    Insurance;
•    Law;
•    Linguistics;
•    Marketing;
•    Macroeconomics;
•    Media & journalism;
•    Political science;
•    Philosophy;
•    Psychology;
•    Social policy;
•    Social work;
•    Sociology;
•    Spirituality;
•    Tourism;
•    Other related areas.

Articles should be prepared in strict accordance with the template found through the following link: http://hkjoss.com/docs/template.doc  and Author Guidelines, please check the link http://hkjoss.com/index.php/journal/about/submissions#authorGuidelines.  
Each article should have no more than six authors. A study based on up-to-date references of 2016-2021 is required.
All articles published in are published in full open access. In order to provide free access to readers, and to cover the costs of peer review, copyediting, typesetting, long-term archiving, and journal management, an article processing charge (APC) of EUR 350 applies to papers accepted after peer review.
Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English or Chinese. Authors may use our English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.
Articles published in the Hong Kong journal of Social Sciences will be Open-Access articles distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The copyright is retained by the author(s).
Scopus coverage years: from 2010 to 2014, from 2016 to Present.

The Hong Kong Journal of Social Sciences rank is Q4 (General Social Sciences).

Posted: 2023-08-04 More...
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Last Research Articles

The purpose of this research is to examine the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on audit quality. This research uses a qualitative methodology with an interview approach to examine the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on six indicators relating to audit quality, including audit procedures, audit fees, and auditor performance. This study obtains data from six professional auditors from both Big 4 and non-Big 4 public accounting firms who worked before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Due to the increase in uncertainties during the pandemic and regulations that have forced auditors to conduct audit remotely, the findings have shown that the six indicators related to audit quality were indeed been affected by the pandemic; however, the result shows that audit quality is still maintained during the pandemic due to the efforts made by the auditors, regulations and standards that have been issued during the pandemic. To date and to the best of the researchers’ knowledge, there have been limited qualitative studies that discuss the impact of COVID-19 in Indonesia. Therefore, this research fills this gap by discussing and reviewing the impacts of the pandemic on various indicators of audit quality in Indonesia.


Keywords: audit quality, COVID-19, audit fee, audit procedures, auditor’s performance, audit human capital, auditor’s salaries, auditor’s motivation.


DOI: https://doi.org/10.55463/hkjss.issn.1021-3619.62.32

Marchella Lukito, Gatot Soepriyanto

The high uncertainty of the Covid-19 pandemic makes it challenging for policy makers to design suitable solutions in response to it, especially in the education sector. The education sector is highly affected by the outbreak of COVID-19. The outbreak of COVID-19 is hindering education globally and hence has forced some high institutions to switch to online classes with the aim of mitigating the spread of the disease. This study’s major objective was to determine factors influencing online learning of private university students under the COVID-19 pandemic in Selangor. The analysis was conducted through a quantitative approach using SPSS Version 20.0. From 217 participants given the questionnaire through online method with use of a Google link and social media such as WhatsApp and Facebook, the research obtained 206 responses. The analysis conducted, which included the linearity test, Pearson correlation analysis, and multiple regression, revealed relationship between independent variables (technical skills, course content and methodology, online connectivity and availability, student engagement) and the dependent variable (online learning under the COVID-19 pandemic). Hence, multiple regression showed that all the hypotheses were accepted. However, the research faced limitations relating to the approach used, such as convenience sampling, as the researchers focused only on a quantitative approach. Hence, future studies can focus on simple random sampling and missed approaches to further enhance the reliability and validity.


Keywords: online learning, social media, Covid-19 pandemic.


DOI: https://doi.org/10.55463/hkjss.issn.1021-3619.62.31

Ilangovan Perumal, Sudhashini Nair, Dineswary Nadarajan, Murugan Thangiah, Stephen Sesaiah, Gopal Perumal

In recent years, customer experience has become a primary concern for several multinational corporations, with very senior roles committed to it in their hierarchy. Research on the nature, determinants, and consequences of customer experience is widely presented in the literature and, however, often divergent in many aspects. The advent of the sharing economy where the customer can also be a producer of value and a service provider has made certain concepts of the customer experience very controversial, starting with the notion of the customer itself. This literature review aims to explore to what extent certain notions of customer experience remain valid and could adapt well to this new booming economy. The analysis we conducted covered 104 articles. This literature review has shown the existence of certain determinants of the customer experience and the customer journey that are specific to the collaborative economy and has identified avenues for future research on the measurement, determinants, and quality of customer experience and journey in this new economy.


Keywords: sharing economy, customer experience, customer journey, quality of customer experience.


DOI: https://doi.org/10.55463/hkjss.issn.1021-3619.62.30

Rahhal El Makkaoui, Abdelaziz Bahoussa

The National Entrepreneurship Policy (NEP) 2030 creates a holistic and conducive entrepreneurial ecosystem to support an inclusive, balanced, and sustainable socioeconomic agenda. However, the issue of competence of micro, small and medium enterprises (MSME) Bumiputera entrepreneurs in the business sector has yet to be resolved holistically. Accordingly, a pilot study was conducted to determine the level of competence of MSME bumiputra entrepreneurs in Malaysia. The design of a quantitative study with a survey method approach was conducted on Bumiputera MSME entrepreneurs around Selangor and Kuala Lumpur. The competency study instrument has high reliability with a Cronbach’s alpha value of 0.967. The resource-based view (RBV) theory is used as the basis for the formation of research instruments. Questionnaires were distributed to the respondents face-to-face. The study data were analyzed descriptively using SPSS Version 28.0 software. The results of the study show that most of the respondents are between 31 and 40 years old with an income of 10,000 Malaysian Ringgit (MYR) and above and are involved in the business sector. The level of competence of entrepreneurs in terms of skills through the strategic management dimension shows the highest mean value (4.41). Meanwhile, the level of knowledge competence through the dimension of foresight and the system of thinking showed the lowest mean value (4.17). The findings of this study have implications for the government to design training programs, seminars, and courses to strengthen the knowledge of Bumiputera entrepreneurs in Malaysia.


Keywords: competence, entrepreneur, pilot study, Malaysia.


DOI: https://doi.org/10.55463/hkjss.issn.1021-3619.62.29

Muhamad Hariff Ahamat, Norngainy Mohd Tawil, Noor Azlan Ghazali, Roslan Ja’afar, Noviatin Syarifuddin

In Thailand, people were affected by the COVID-19 epidemic every day from multiple clusters, increasing the number of cases in the thousands per day and also affecting the economy. Most of the infected were young, between the ages of 20-40. Young infected had mild or no severe symptoms, making them unaware that they were infected, which complicated significantly the spread control. The number of daily cases of COVID-19 soared due to the severity of the virus and its easy spread so quickly which led to a difficult situation in Thailand. Mistakes in solving the problem of the COVID-19 pandemic had a negative impact on the economy and society. The number of new cases and deaths was rising, affecting the capacity of Thailand’s public health system beyond its ability to cope and reflecting the inefficiency of the leadership in managing the COVID-19 pandemic situation. This article proposes a guideline for solving this crisis. However, in the recent situation, the people also urged those in charge to expedite the resolution of the COVID-19 crisis to control the pandemic and the death of the people from serious contagious diseases in time, whether it is epidemic control, subsidies for entrepreneurs and people, stimulation of the economy, or recovery of Thailand. These are considered urgent approaches and the keys to effectively solving the COVID-19 pandemic at this time. The goal of this article is to serve as a guideline for leaders to apply it in effectively solving problems with the outbreak of new strains of germs and being ready to deal with various disaster problems that will occur in the future.


Keywords: leadership, management, pandemic, virus, COVID-19.


DOI: https://doi.org/10.55463/hkjss.issn.1021-3619.62.28

Areerat Homprasert
Hong Kong journal of Social Sciences
The Hong Kong journal of Social Sciences is a kind of forum for discussing issues and problems facing science and scholars, as well as an effective means of interaction between the members of the academic community. The Hong Kong Journal of Social Sciences is read by a large number of scholars, and the circulation of the journal is constantly growing.
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