Hong Kong Journal of Social Sciences

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The Hong Kong Journal of Social Sciences (HKJSS) (ISSN:1021-3619) is a double-blind peer-reviewed, open access research journal. HKJSS aims to publish interdisciplinary research with a primary focus on original research or reviews in various disciplines of humanities and social sciences.

Articles are welcome in the following categories: education and assessment, English language & literature, media & journalism, politics & governance, psychology, sociology, macroeconomics, international economics, econometrics, tourism, insurance, commerce, marketing, history, political science, philosophy, culturology, aesthetics, ethics, law, spirituality.


The Hong Kong journal of Social Sciences is indexed by Scopus, Web of Science, America: History and Life, CSA Sociological Abstracts, Historical Abstracts, Hong Kong Journal Online, International Bibliography of the Social Sciences, International Consortium for the Academic Publication, ProQuest,  Ulrich’s Periodical Directory, 中華民國期刊論文索引影像系統, 中文期刊篇目索引影像系統, 香港中文期刊論文索引, 港澳期刊網.


Journal audiences are learned readers, including researchers from universities and higher education institutions, policymakers, and administrators. 

Articles containing fundamental or applied scientific results in all areas of the social sciences are accepted for consideration.

The editorial board of the HKJSS includes 25 members and is chaired by Editor-in-Chief  Prof. Luo Jinyi.

Frequency of publication:  Four issues per year beginning in 2020

Access to all articles on the website is open beginning in 2020; neither registration nor payment is required.

Journal articles are licensed under the CC BY 4.0 Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

The HKJSS maintains electronic versions of all articles. Data safety is ensured by backing up digital data in accordance with internal regulations. Logical and physical data migration are provided, and cloud technologies are applied.

Article Processing Charges (APC) Information


Hong Kong Journal of Social Sciences publishes all its articles in full open access, meaning unlimited use and reuse of articles, in addition to giving credit to the authors. All of our articles are published under a Creative Commons (CC BY) license.
Authors pay the one-time publication fees of 400.00 euros, including:

• Language Editing Services of 80 euros (for articles of 5000 words or less),

• Layout Editing - 20 euros,

• Article Publication Charges (APCs) - 300 euros.


Article Processing Charge (APC) to cover the costs of peer review administration and management, professional production of articles in PDF and other formats, and dissemination of published papers in various venues, in addition to other publishing functions.  There are no charges for rejected articles, no submission charges, and no surcharges based on the figures or supplementary data. Some items (Editorials, Corrections, Addendums, Retractions, Comments, etc.) are published free of charge.

Discounts on APCs may be granted at the Publisher's discretion and should be discussed with the editorial office when submitting the article. The editorial decision making is decoupled from the authors' ability to pay the Processing Charges, however authors should consider in advance whether they have sufficient funds to cover the full APC.

HKJSS also offers discount vouchers to selected reviewers.

APCs are payable within 5 to 10 business days.

Invoices are emailed shortly after acceptance to the payment contact provided by the authors. Only official invoices issued by HKJSS (@hkjoss.com) are valid. We do not authorize any third party to collect the APCs. HKJSS (@hkjoss.com) is the sole service provider and cannot be held liable for actions by third parties.
For wire transfers, we ask the customer to pay the fees for both the sender and the recipient bank, so that HKJSS receives the full invoiced amount.


For further information, please contact:

We’re located, Rm 1326, Lift 13 - 15, Academic Building, Clear Water Bay, Sai Kung, New Territories, Hong Kong
Get in touch with us!
Email: mailbox@hkjoss.com
Phone: (852)-4248-8958

Paper Submission 



Submission open for No. 62 Autumn/Winter 2023

The Hong Kong journal of Social Sciences is accepting submissions for No. 62 Autumn/Winter 2023

Dear Authors,
Please submit your manuscripts through our Online Submission System http://hkjoss.com/index.php/journal/pages/view/papersubmission  or directly to the Chief -Editor's e-mail mailbox@hkjoss.com.  The journal publishes articles in English or Chinese.
Hong Kong journal of Social Sciences an international, open access journal with rapid peer-review, which publishes works from a wide range of fields, including anthropology, criminology, economics, education, geography, history, law, linguistics, political science, psychology, social policy, social work, sociology and so on. The journal seeks to appeal to an interdisciplinary audience and authorship which focuses upon real world research. With its efficient and qualified double-blind peer review process, Hong Kong journal of Social Sciences aims to present the newest relevant and emerging scholarship in the field to both academia and the broader public alike, thereby maintaining its place as a dynamic platform for engaging in social sciences research and academic debate.

Subject Areas:
•    Anthropology;
•    Aesthetics;
•    Culturology;
•    Criminology;
•    Commerce;
•    Education and assessment;
•    English language & literature;
•    Econometrics;
•    Ethics;
•    Geography;
•    History;
•    International economics;
•    Insurance;
•    Law;
•    Linguistics;
•    Marketing;
•    Macroeconomics;
•    Media & journalism;
•    Political science;
•    Philosophy;
•    Psychology;
•    Social policy;
•    Social work;
•    Sociology;
•    Spirituality;
•    Tourism;
•    Other related areas.

Articles should be prepared in strict accordance with the template found through the following link: http://hkjoss.com/docs/template.doc  and Author Guidelines, please check the link http://hkjoss.com/index.php/journal/about/submissions#authorGuidelines.  
Each article should have no more than six authors. A study based on up-to-date references of 2016-2021 is required.
All articles published in are published in full open access. In order to provide free access to readers, and to cover the costs of peer review, copyediting, typesetting, long-term archiving, and journal management, an article processing charge (APC) of EUR 350 applies to papers accepted after peer review.
Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English or Chinese. Authors may use our English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.
Articles published in the Hong Kong journal of Social Sciences will be Open-Access articles distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The copyright is retained by the author(s).
Scopus coverage years: from 2010 to 2014, from 2016 to Present.

The Hong Kong Journal of Social Sciences rank is Q4 (General Social Sciences).

Posted: 2023-08-04 More...
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Last Research Articles

The purpose of this scholarly paper is to provide key ideas for managing elementary education in the 21st century. The 21st century alliance offers a framework for 21st-century learning that includes knowledge and critical abilities that must be cultivated in both current and future learners. Students must learn in a variety of basic disciplines to acquire information, understanding, and skills that can be used in real life, have knowledge of key 21st-century concepts, and develop and put their research and creative talents to work. In order to succeed and reach their objectives, the organizations in charge of delivering education must concentrate on teaching students 21st century abilities, in terms of essential topics, crucial ideas, crucial abilities, and necessary support structures for 21st century education. Today’s learning of the subject matter (content) should be self-discovery, with teachers guiding and designing activities that allow individual students to assess their own learning progress. Skills for living in the 21st century contain subjects that are important but not sufficient for learning for living in the 21st century. This core subject will result in the development of a conceptual framework and significant strategies for learning management in interdisciplinary content. Core subjects include mother tongue and major world languages, arts, mathematics, government and civics, economics, science, geography, and history. Incorporating 21st-century abilities into all core courses while fostering knowledge in core subjects is interdisciplinary research or a research theme for the 21st century.


Keywords: concepts, principles, primary education management, 21st century.


DOI: https://doi.org/10.55463/hkjss.issn.1021-3619.61.67

Kitjanat Chalermkerdsrinuansakul

This research examines the relationship between the ethnic diversity of the board of directors and corporate tax-avoidance behavior using a quantitative approach. This research examined 126 companies listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange during the 2017–2021 observation years. The Blau index measures the ethnic diversity of the board of directors. In contrast, corporate tax avoidance is measured by cash-effective tax rate, book-tax difference, and effective tax rate proxies. The documents used in collecting ethnic diversity data include the company’s annual report, director’s curriculum vitae, video recordings, audio recordings, photo recordings, and writing recordings. The research was conducted using the STATA application. The results showed that the interaction of ethnically diverse boards of directors did not influence tax-avoidance behavior. However, the research found a significant link between ethnicity and tax avoidance when boards of directors did not interact with each other. This finding provides new knowledge and insight into the field of taxation for regulators investigating cases of tax-avoidance developments.


Keywords: tax avoidance, ethnicity, board of directors.


DOI: https://doi.org/10.55463/hkjss.issn.1021-3619.61.66

Yolanda Anggraeny, Gatot Soepriyanto

Narcissism is a common form of self-importance. Individuals appreciate a high degree of life satisfaction if their life circumstances agree with their own standards. This study was conducted to understand the factors affecting the life satisfaction of Gen Z individuals through narcissism, self-esteem, and symptoms of social network addiction. The research model and hypotheses were tested using the PLS-SEM technique with SmartPLS 4. The dataset was collected in 2023 with 306 respondents. The results show that narcissism has an indirect impact on the life satisfaction of Gen Z individuals through self-esteem and social media addiction. More specifically, the symptoms of social media addiction had a negative impact on Gen Z’s life satisfaction. Based on the analysis results, this study proposes several options to improve the satisfaction of Gen Z and Gen Z management implications.


Keywords: narcissism, social media addiction, self-esteem, life satisfaction, Gen Z.


DOI: https://doi.org/10.55463/hkjss.issn.1021-3619.61.65

Nguyen Ngoc Dan Thanh, Tran Yen Hao, Nguyen Hoang Minh Giang, Nguyen Kim Yen, Dinh Thi Mong Hoai

This study discusses the problem of the accuracy of the single- and multi-index models to form a stock investment portfolio. This study aims to reveal information related to the accuracy of the single- and multi-index models to form an optimal stock investment portfolio after the COVID-19 pandemic in Indonesia. The results of the analysis can be used to choose which model is more accurate to form an optimal stock portfolio that can provide returns for investors. This research is devoted to determining the optimal stock portfolio using the single- and multi-index models. The data were collected from stocks included in the LQ45 list for February-July 2022 with 5980 observations consisting of 115 market returns, 1150 industrial sector returns, and 4715 individual stock returns. The analytical method used was regression analysis to predict the expected returns from single- and multi-index models, standard deviation of residuals, and Wilcoxon's differential signed-rank test. The results of the study show that stock investment portfolios based on daily data using the single index model approach and the multi-index model have their respective levels of accuracy with an accuracy rate of 95% (alpha 5%). The main finding is that the multi-index model proved to be more accurate than the single-index model, where the standard deviations of the multi- and single-index models were 0.0215 and 0.0280, respectively.


Keywords: individual stock returns, market returns, multi-index model, single-index model, Wilcoxon’s signed-rank test.


DOI: https://doi.org/10.55463/hkjss.issn.1021-3619.61.64

Sunarto, Ali Ma’sum, Kasmari, Bambang Sudiyatno

The traditional market is a center of economic activity for the community. Traditional markets have potential for tourists visiting Yogyakarta as an improvement to the global economy. However, traditional markets need to survive in the era of globalization, and the sustainability of traditional markets must continue to be developed through the promotion and development of tourism in traditional markets. This study aims to determine whether promotion factors, attractive locations, products offered, service and hospitality of traders, and facilities can influence the development of tourism in traditional markets in Yogyakarta and its variables that have a significant effect. The type of research used is quantitative research using survey methods and sampling techniques combined with accidental sampling techniques. The sample in this study consisted of 100 people from traditional market locations: Kota Gede Market, Ngasem Market, Kranggan Market, and Demangan Market. The data analysis methods used in this study are descriptive and multiple linear regression analyses. The data processing was performed using SPSS computer software for Windows.The results showed that the variables of facilities, services, and place greatly influence the improvement of tourism development in Yogyakarta’s traditional markets, while product and promotion variables have no effect. This research shows that promotions, attractive locations, products offered, service and hospitality of traders, and facilities can significantly influence the development of tourism in traditional markets in Yogyakarta. We recommend that traditional market factors be considered and applied to improve global economic development.


Keywords: traditional markets, tourism, economic activities, promotion, management.


DOI: https://doi.org/10.55463/hkjss.issn.1021-3619.61.63

Aris Indriyanti, Supriyono, Nur Wening, Rusmin
Hong Kong journal of Social Sciences
The Hong Kong journal of Social Sciences is a kind of forum for discussing issues and problems facing science and scholars, as well as an effective means of interaction between the members of the academic community. The Hong Kong Journal of Social Sciences is read by a large number of scholars, and the circulation of the journal is constantly growing.
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